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Learn Python Programming In One Article

Learn Python Programming In One Article

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Python is a general-purpose coding language and one of the best programming languages for beginners. The syntax of python is easy to learn as compare to other programming languages (C, C++, Java, etc). Python is used in various fields such as Machine Learning, Automation, Web Development, Game Development, Graphical User Interface, etc. In this article, you will learn in-depth every topic of Python and its core concepts with examples.

⭐ I also created my Udemy course, if you are interested you can also check it out

Here are the topics we cover in this article:-

  1. Python Print Statement
  2. Python Comments
  3. Python Variables
  4. Python Type Conversion
  5. Python Input Function
  6. Python Operator
  7. Python IF/ELSE
  8. Python For Loop
  9. Python While Loop
  10. Python Break and Continue Statement
  11. Python Numbers
  12. Python List
  13. Python Tuple
  14. Python String
  15. Python Set
  16. Python Dictionary
  17. Python Functions
  18. Python Lambda Functions
  19. Python Global and Local Variables
  20. Python File Handling
  21. Python Try Except

Python print()

Python print() is used to print the output on the screen.

print "hello world" using print()

print("hello world")

Now lets print your name in my case "Nishant Tiwari"

print("Nishant Tiwari")

Add, sub, multiply, and divide two number together and print the output

 print(10+10)
 print(20-10) 
 print(30*20)
 print(100/6)

💡.py is the file extension for the python file

Python Comments

Python Comments are used to explain your python code and make your code more readable.

There are two types of Python Comments

1) Single Line Comments

Single-Line Comments starts with #

 print(10+20) #example of single line

💡 If you use Python Comments on a line then python will ignore the rest of the line

2) Multi-Line Comments

Multi Line Comments starts and ends with ''' or """

'''
example of a multi-line comment
print(20+20)
'''
#or
"""
print(20-10)
"""

Python Variables

Variables are the space or a location used to store data in memory

Assign the value 10 to a variable

a = 10 #here a is a variable
print(a) #output: 10

Reassigning value to a variable

a = 20 #now new value is 20 to variable a
print(a) #output: 20

Now let us take three variable and print the values of each

a = 30
b = 40
c = 50
#print in a single line
print(a,b,c) #output: 30 40 50 
print(a) #output: 30
print(b) #output: 40
print(c) #output: 50

Assign multiple values to multiple variables

a,b,c = 30,40,50 #same as above
print(a,b,c) #output: 30,40,50

Assign a single value to multiple variables

a = b = c = 10
print(a,b,c) #output: 10 10 10

Rules and Naming Convention for Variables

There are some following rules for variables :

  • Variables always starts with Capital Letter, Small Letter or an Underscore (_)

      a = "hello"
      A = "world"
      _ = "dx4iot here"
      print(a) #output: hello
      print(A) #output: world
      print(_) #output: dx4iot here
    
  • Variables always start with Capital Letter, Small Letter, or an Underscore (_)

      % = "hello"
      1 = "hello"
      print(%) #output: Error
      print(1) #output: Error
    
  • If there is a variable of two words then separate it using _ (snake case) or use camelCase

      #snake_case
      snake_case = "hello" #output: hello
      #camelCase
      camelCase = "world" #output: world
    

Python Data Types

Variable can store data of different types such as int, float, list, tuple, set, etc

There are different data types such as:

Numbers

There are three types of data type under numbers

1) Integer (int) : integer values such as (-1,0,1,2)

    a = 10 #int (integer)
    print(type(a)) #output: <class 'int'>

💡 type() is used to check the type of data

2) Float : a floating-point number (10.3, 13.001, 21.223)

b = 10.5 #float
print(type(b)) #output: <class 'float'>

3) Complex: expressed in the form x + yj (x is the real part and y is the imaginary part)

c = 1 + 2j #complex (1+2j => x + yj)
print(type(c)) #output: <class 'complex'>

List

List is used to storing multiple elements of different data types. List is an ordered sequence of mutable elements.

Example of a simple list

d = [10,10.5,20] 
print(d) #output: [10, 10.5, 20]
print(type(d)) #output: <class 'list'>

print the first element of a list

d = [10,10.5,20]
print(d[0]) #output: 10
print(d[1]) #output: 10.5

Insert an element to the first position of a list

fruit = ["apple","mango","grapes"]
fruit.insert(0,"banana") 
print(fruit) #output: ['banana', 'apple', 'mango', 'grapes']

💡 List is always mutable (changeable) that's why we add an element to add

Tuple

Tuple is the same as list it is also used to store multiple elements of different data types but the difference is tuple is immutable.

Example of a simple tuple

months = ("jan","feb","march")
print(months) #output: ('jan', 'feb', 'march')
print(type(months)) #output: <class 'tuple'>
**print the first element of a tuple**
months = ("jan","feb","march")
 print(months[0]) #output: jan

💡 Tuple is immutable so if we try to insert an element it will throw an error

```python
months = ("jan","feb","march")
months.insert(0,"april") #ERROR
```

String

String is a sequence of characters that are immutable

Example of a string

a = "hello world"

Example of a multi-line string

e = """nishant
tiwari
age: 19
"""

Set

Set is used to store unique elements (set automatically removes duplicate elements).

Example of a set

f = {1,5,6,9,2,4,4} 
print(f) #output: {1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9}
print(type(f)) #output: <class 'set'>

Dictionary

Dictionary is a collection of key-value pairs

Example of a simple dictionary

 #dictionary : key/value
name = {1:"nishant",2:"kartik"}
print(type(name)) #output: <class 'dict'>
print(name[1]) #output: nishant

Python Type Conversion

Converting the value of one data type to another is known as type conversion

There are two types of type conversion

1) Implicit Type Conversion: In Implicit Type Conversion python automatically convert the value of data type to another

Example of Implicit Type Conversion

a = 10 #int
b = 20.3 #float
c = a + b #python automatically convert to float
 '''
print(type(a)) #output: <class 'int'>
print(type(b)) #output: <class 'float'>
print(type(c)) #output: <class 'float'>

💡 Remember this table

int + int = int
int + float = float
float + float = float
float + int = int
str + int = error
str + float = error

2) Explicit Type Conversion: In Explicit Type Conversion user convert one data type to the required datatype

Example of Explicit Type Conversion

a = 100 #int
b = "40" #str
c = int(b) #convert to int 
d = a + c #int + int = int
print(type(d)) #output: <class 'int'>

Python Input()

Input() statement is used to take input from the user

Example of an Input()

a = input() #take input from the user and store it to a variable

Take two numbers from user

 a = int(input("Enter first num: ")) #user input: 10
b = int(input("Enter second num: ")) #user input: 20
c = a + b #int
print(a+b) #Output: 30

Python Operator

Operators are used to perform operations (eg: addition, compare two value, assign a value, etc)

Some types of Operators are :

  • Arithmetic Operator : For mathematical operations (+, -, /, %)
  • Comparison Operator: Compare two values (x > y, x < y, x != y)
  • Logical Operator: For logical operations **(and, or, not)
  • Assignment Operator: Assign values to variables (a= 10, x = 20)

Python Operator: Arithmetic Operator

Arithmetic Operator are used to perform mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc)

Example of Arithmetic Operator

#take two variable and assign some values to it
a = 3 #first variable
b = 2 #second variable

#Addition
print(a+b) #output: 5

#Subtraction
print(a-b) #output: 1

#Multiplication
print(a*b) #output: 6

#Division
print(a/b) #output: 1.5

#Modulus: remainder of the division
print(a%b) #output: 1

#Floor division: result in whole number
print(a//b) #output: 1

#Exponent: power
print(a**b) #output: 9

Python Operator: Comparison Operators

Comparison Operator is used to compare two values (x is greater than y, x is less than y, etc)

Example of Comparison Operators

#take two variable and assign some values to it
x = 10 #first variable
y = 20 #second variable

#x is greater than y
print(x > y) #output: false

#x is less than y
print(x < y) #output: true

#x is equal to y
print(x == y) #output: false

#x is not equal to y
print(x != y) #output: true

#x is greater than or equal to y
print(x >= y) #output: false

#x is less than or equal to y
print(x <= y) #output: true

Python Operator: Logical Operators

Logical Operator are and, or, not operators and are used on conditional statements

💡 Truth table for and operator

True  and True  = True
True  and False = False
False and True  = False
False and False = False

💡 Truth table for or operator

True  or True  = True
True  or False = True
False or True  = True
False or False = False

💡 Truth table for not-operator

True  = False
False = True

Example of Logical Operators

#take two variable and assign some values to it
x = True 
y = False 
print(x and y) #output: False
print(x or y) #output: True
print(not y) #output: True

Python Operator: Assignment Operator

Assignment Operator are used to assign a value to a variables (x = 10, y = 20, etc)

Example of Assignment Operators


a = 5
print(a) #output: 5

#**Reassigning value to a variable**
a = a + 5 
print(a) #output: 10

a = a - 5 
print(a) #output: 5

💡 You can also write a = a + 5 as a += 5 and same for subtraction , multiplication ,division etc.

a = 5

#**Reassigning value to a variable**
a += 5
print(a) #output: 10

a -= 2 
print(a) #output: 8

Python if/else statement

If and else statement is used for decision making (If one statement isn't true then runs the next one)

Simple Example of if/else statement

#take two variable and assign some values to it
a = 20 
b = 10
#first condition is false because a is less than 2
if a<b:
    print("a is less than b")
#second condition is true because a is greater than 2
elif a>b:
    print("a is greater than b")
#third condition is false because a is not equal to 2
else:
    print("a is equal to b")

💡 elif is short for else if (used for multiple expressions)

💡 else if no statement is true then at last else statement is executed

Python Program to Check if a number is Odd or Even (IF/ELSE)

This python program checks whether the number is even or odd. To check even/odd numbers we need to use the if/else statement. In the if condition we need to make sure the input number % 2 is always 0 (even) and for the else condition all the numbers are odd.

#create a variable and assign input()
num = int(input("Enter a number: "))
if (num % 2) == 0:
    print(num,"is an Even Number")
else:
    print(num,"is an Odd Number")

Python for loop

For loop is used to iterate over a sequence of numbers, string, list, etc

Simple Example of for loop

#print the value from 0 to 4, and when the loop end, it prints hello world
for x in range(5):
    print(x)
print("hello world")
#output:
'''
0
1
2
3
4
hello world
'''

#print the value from 5 to 10, and when the loop end, it prints hello world
for x in range(5,21):
    print(x)
print("hello world")
#output: 
'''
5
6
7
8
9
hello world
'''

Print the table of any number

#create a varaible and assign input()
num = int(input("Enter a num: ")) #user input: 2
#runs 1 to 10 times
for i in range(1,11):
    print(num*i)     #mutiply num by i
#output: 
'''
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
'''

Iterating over lists with for loop

#create a list of fruits 
fruit = ["apple","banana","grapes"]
#iterating each elements of list 
for i in fruit:
    print(i)
#output:
'''
apple
banana
grapes
'''

💡 Generally, if you need to print an element of a list you need to use print() each time for each element. And, with the help of for loop, you can just directly iterating each element of a list.

Iterating over the string with for loop

helloWorld = "hello world"
#iterating each characters of string
for i in helloWorld:
    print(i)
print("hello world")
#output:
'''
h
e
l
l
o

w
o
r
l
d
hello world
'''

Python while loop

While loop is same as for loop, it runs until the condition is True

Simple Example of while loop

a = 1
#loop runs until the value of a is not greater than 9
while a < 10:
    print(a) #print the value of a each time until loop end
    a = a + 1 #adding the current value of a with 1 
print("hello world") #when the loop end then (hello world) prints
#output:
'''
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
hello world
'''

Example of infinite loop

If the condition of the while loop is always True, we get an infinite loop

#since while loop is always true
while True:
    print("hello world")
#output: infinite times hello world

💡If the loop is always False then nothing happens because while loop runs until the condition is true

#since while loop is always true
while False:
    print("hello world")
#output: nothing happen

Python Break & Continue Statement

Break statement breaks the current loop containing it

Example of Break Statement

First, we iterate each character of a string inside a for loop then if the character (x) is equal to "o" it breaks the condition.

#python break
a = "hello"
for x in a:
    if x == "o":
        break
    print(x)
print("hello world")
#output:
'''
h
e
l
l
hello world
'''

Continue Statement begin the next iteration of the loop

Example of Continue Statement

First, we iterate each character of a string inside a for loop then if the character (x) is equal to "l" it just continues to the next iteration.

#python continue
a = "hello"
for x in a:
    if x == "l":
        continue
    print(x)
print("hello world")
#output: 
'''
h
e
o
hello world
'''

Python Numbers

There are three types of data type under numbers

1) Integer (int) : integer values such as (-1,0,1,2)

2) Float : a floating-point number (10.3, 13.001, 21.223)

3) Complex: expressed in the form x + yj (x is the real part and y is the imaginary part)

Example of integer

a = 5 #int (integer)
print(type(a)) #output: <class 'int'>

Example of float

b = 5.5 #float
print(type(b)) #output: <class 'float'>

Example of complex

c = 5 + 3j #complex (1+2j => x + yj)
print(type(c)) #output: <class 'complex'>

max() method

max() method return the highest value

Example of max() method

If we have three numbers then the min() method return the lowest number


print(max(80,90,100)) #output: 100
print(max(1000,-20,300)) #output: 1000
print(max(30,0,-1)) #output: 30
#negative numbers
print(max(-1,-2,-10)) #output: -1
#floating numbers
print(max(3.0,3.1,3.2)) #output: 3.2
'''

min() method

min() method return the lowest value

Example of max() method

If we have three numbers then the min() method return the lowest number

print(min(80,80,100)) #output: 80
print(min(30,40,50)) #output: 30
print(min(-1,-2,-3)) #output: -30

Python List

List is used to store multiple elements of different data types. List is an ordered sequence of mutable elements.

Example of an empty list

a_list = []
print(a_list) #output: []

Example of list of integer values

a_int = [1,2,3,4,5]
print(a_int) #output: [1,2,3,4,5]

Example of list of float values

a_float = [1.0,2.2,3.4,3.5]
print(a_float) #output: [1.0,2.2,3.4,3.5]

Example of list of string values

a_str = ["apple","mango","grapes"]
print(a_str) #output: ["apple","mango","grapes"]

Example of the list with mixed data types

a_mix = [1,1.0,"apple"]
print(a_mix) #output: [1,1.0,"apple"]

accessing the elements of a list

a_mix = [1,1.0,"apple"]
print(a_mix[0]) #output:1
print(a_mix[1]) #output: 1.0
print(a_mix[2]) #output: apple

Nested list

A nested list means list within a list

Example of Nested list

nest_list = ["hello",[1,2,3]]
#print the 1 of 0 element
print(nest_list[1][0]) #output: 1
#print the 1 of 1 element
print(nest_list[1][1]) #output: 2
#print the 1 of 2 element
print(nest_list[1][2]) #output: 3

Negative Indexing

Negative Indexing means the index starts from the end

Example of Negative Indexing

#negative indexing
a = [1,2,3,4,5]
#print the last element of the list
print(a[-1]) #output: 5
#print the second last element of the list
print(a[-2]) #output: 4

find the length of a list

len() method prints the length of a list

#to find length of a list
a = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]
#there are 10 elements in a list so length of a list will be 10
print(len(a)) #output: 10

Python List Methods

There are different types of list methods :

append()

append() is used to add the elements to the end of the list

Example of append()

fruit = ["apple","mango","grapes"]
print(fruit) #output: ["apple","mango","grapes"]
#append "banana" to the end of the list
fruit.append("banana")
print(fruit) #output: ["apple","mango","grapes","banana"]

extend()

extend() is used to merge two list

Example of extend()


lang = ["English","Hindi"]
lang1 = ["French","German"]
#add elements of lang1 to the end of lang list
lang.extend(lang1) 
print(lang) #output: ['English', 'Hindi', 'French', 'German']

index()

index() is used to find the position of the element in a list

Example of index()

lang = ['English', 'Hindi', 'French', 'German']
#print the position of "French"
print(lang.index("French")) #output: 2

insert()

insert() is used to insert an element at a specified position

Example of insert()

lang = ["English","Hindi","French"]
#inserting "German" on 2 position
lang.insert(2,"German")
print(lang) #output: ['English', 'Hindi', 'German', 'French']

count()

Example of count()

count() is used to calculates the total existence of a given element of a List.

list_int = [1,2,3,1,2,1,1,5]
#print the total occurrence of 1 in a list
print(list_int.count(1)) #output: 4

remove()

remove() is used to remove an element according to its element name

Example of remove()

lang = ["English","Hindi","French"]
#remove "French" from above list
lang.remove("French")
print(lang) #output: ["English","Hindi"]

pop()

pop() is also used to remove an element but according to their index position

Example of pop()

lang = ["English","Hindi","French"]
#remove "Hindi" from above list
lang.pop(1)
print(lang) #output: ['English','French']

reverse()

reverse() is used to reverse the element of a list

lang = ["English","Hindi","French"]
#reverse the element 
lang.reverse()
print(lang) #output: ['French', 'Hindi', 'English']

sort()

sort() is used to sort the elements of a list in ascending order (by default)

Example of sort()


list_int = [1,5,4,7,8,3,2,1]
#sort in ascending order
list_int.sort()
print(list_int) #output: [1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8]

Sort in descending order

list_int = [1,5,4,7,8,3,2,1]
#sort in descending order
list_int.sort(reverse=True)
print(list_int) #output: [8, 7, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, 1]

Python Tuple

Tuple is the same as list it is also used to store multiple items of different data types but the difference is tuple is immutable.

Example of an empty tuple

e_tuple = ()
print(e_tuple) #output: ()

Example of a simple list

months = ("jan","feb","march")
print(months) #output: ("jan","feb","march")

accessing the elements of a tuple

months = ("jan","feb","march")
print(months[0]) #output: jan
print(months[1]) #output: feb
print(months[2]) #output: march

Nested Tuple

Nested Tuple is same as Nested List

Example of Nested Tuple

n_tuple = ("hello",(1,2,3))
print(n_tuple[0])
#print the 1 of 1 element
print(n_tuple[1][1])
#print the 1 of 2 element
print(n_tuple[1][2])

Negative Indexing

Negative Indexing means the index starts from the end Example of Negative Indexing

e_tuple = (1,2,3)
#print the last element of the tuple
print(e_tuple[-1])
#print the second last element of the tuple
print(e_tuple[-2])

Python Set

Set is used to store unique elements (set automatically removes duplicate elements)

Example of an empty set

my_set = {}
print(my_set) #output: {}

Example of a simple set

my_set = {1,2,9,6,8}
print(my_set) #output: {1, 2, 6, 8, 9}

Example of the list with mixed data types

my_set = {1,1.0,"hello world",2,2} 
print(my_set) #output: {'hello world', 1, 2}

Set does not support Indexing

a = {"a","b","c"}
print(a[0]) #Error: not support indexing

Add a element to a set

my_set = {1,2,9,6,8} 
my_set.add(3)
print(my_set) #output: {1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 9}

Add a multiple-element to a set

my_set = {1,2,9,6,8}
my_set.update([10,11,12])
print(my_set) #output: {1, 2, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12}

Remove an element from a set

my_set = {1,2,9,6,8}
my_set.remove(2)
print(my_set) #output: {1, 6, 8, 9}

Set Operation

The set operations are performed on two or more sets to obtain a combination of elements

  • Union: all elements which are in either A or B (or both)

      a = {0,1,2}
      b = {3,4,5}
      print(a|b) #output: {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
    
  • Intersection: all elements which are in both A and B

      a = {0,1,2,3,4}
      b = {0,2,4,9,8,7}
      print(a&b) #output: {0, 2, 4}
    

Python Dictionary

Dictionary is a collection of key-value pairs

Example of a simple dictionary

my_dict = {"fruit":"apple","veg":"carrot"}
print(my_dict) #output: {'fruit': 'apple', 'veg': 'carrot'}

accessing values of a dictionary

my_dict = {"fruit":"apple","veg":"carrot"}
print(my_dict["fruit"]) #output: apple
print(my_dict["veg"]) #output: carrot

print dictionary keys only

my_dict = {"fruit":"apple","veg":"carrot"}
#with the help of keys() 
print(my_dict.keys()) #output: dict_keys(['fruit', 'veg'])

print dictionary values only

my_dict = {"fruit":"apple","veg":"carrot"}
#with the help of values()
print(my_dict.values()) #output: dict_values(['apple', 'carrot'])

add multiple values to a single key

my_new = {"fruit":["apple","mango","grapes"],"veg":["carrot","potato","tomato"]}
print(my_new) 
#output: {'fruit': ['apple', 'mango', 'grapes'], 'veg': ['carrot', 'potato', 'tomato']}

accessing multiple values

my_new = {"fruit":["apple","mango","grapes"],"veg":["carrot","potato","tomato"]}
print(my_new["fruit"][0]) #output: apple
print(my_new["fruit"][1]) #output: mango
print(my_new["fruit"][2]) #output: grapes

Python Function

Function are the block of code and it only runs when it called

Example of simple Function

def hello():
    print("my name is nishant")
#output: no output because function is not called

calling a function

def hello():
    print("my name is nishant")
hello() #function called
#output: my name is nishant

Adding numbers inside a function

#create a addnum function
def addnum():
    print(10+20+30) 
addnum() 
#output: 60

Passing values to a function

def hello(f,l):
    print(f,l)
fname = "Nishant"
lname = "Tiwari"
#passing fname and lname as a parameter to a function 
hello(fname,lname)
#output: Nishant Tiwari

Python Types of Function

There are two types of function:

  • built-in function: there are many function which are already available on python are known as built-in function. For example:

    min(),max(),int(),float(),type(),len()

  • user-defined function: which are created by an user are known as user-defined function

    Example of user-defined function

    
      ****def hello():
      print("hello world")
      hello()
    

Python Global and Local Variables

A global variable can be used anywhere in the program

Example of a Global Variable

x = 10 #old value: 10
def hello():
    #use of global variable inside a function
    global x 
    print(x)
    #reassign a value to x
    x = 20 #new value: 20
hello() #first print the old value 
print(x) # then the new value

#output:
'''
10
20
'''

A local variable is used within their scopes

Example of Local Variable

def hello():
    x = "hello" #local variable
    print(x)
hello() #output is hello
print(x) #error because local variable are use within there scopes
#output:
'''
hello
'x' is not defined
'''

Python Lambda & Anonymous Function

Lambda function is also known as Anonymous Function are those which are defined without a name

Example of a simple Lambda Function

num = lambda x:x #return x
print(num(10)) #output: 10

Multiply a number using Lambda

multi = lambda x:x*2 #return x*2
print(multi(10)) #output: 20

Add two numbers using Lambda

#using lambda 
add = lambda x,y:x+y #return x+y
print(add(2,55)) #output: 57

#using function
def add(a,b):
    return a+b
print(add(5,6)) #output: 57

Python Program to Check if a number is Odd or Even using Lambda

oddeven = lambda num: True if num%2 == 0 else False
print(oddeven(55)) #output: False

Python File Handling

File handling is used to create, read, update, and delete files

opening a text file in python

With the help of the open() method, you can open any file in python

f = open("hello.txt")

reading a text file in python

With the help of the read() method, you can read any data of a file

#hello.txt
'''
hello world
'''
f = open("hello.txt","r") #"r" : Opens a file for reading
 print(f.read()) #Output: hello world
f.close() #closes the opened file

💡 If you don't need to use f.close() you can also open a file as following :

#same as above example 
with open("hello.txt","r") as f:
print(f.read())

writing a text file in python

With the help of the write() method, you can write any data to a file

f = open("test.txt","w") #ppens a file for writing
f.write("hello world my name is nishant\n") 
f.write("hello world\n")
f.close()
#This program will create a new file named hello.txt in the current directory
#hello.txt
'''
hello world my name is nishant
hello world

Python Try Except

Try Except statement is used to handle the error

Example of try-except statement

 #If try condition is false then except condition runs
try:
   print("hello")
except:
    print("hello world")

Example of else statement with try-except

#If try condition is true then only else condition will run
try:
   print("hello")
except:
    print("hello world")
else:
    print("hello")
#output:
'''
hello
hello
'''

#If try condition is false then only except codition will run
try:
   print(x) #x is not define
except:
    print("hello world")
else:
    print("hello")
#output: hello world

Example of finally with try-except

#Finally runs in each case either try is true or false
try:
    print("hello")
except:
    print("hello world")
finally:
   print("hello")
#output:
    '''
    hello
    hello
    '''
#If try condition is false then except and finally wil run
try:
    print(x) #x is not define
except:
    print("hello world")
finally:
     print("hello")
#output:
'''
hello world
hello
'''

Raise an exception

raise keyword is used to throw an exception for a condition if a condition occurs


#raise an exception
x = 5 
if x < 11:
    raise Exception("Sorry, no number below 11")
output:
'''
Exception: Sorry, no number below 11
'''

Hope you liked it and If you have any doubt please contact me at dx4iot@gmail.com

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